There is no greater way to cool off on a hot afternoon than to jump into a refreshing pool. But the dangers of swimming pools cannot be overlooked, especially if you lack pool safety equipment. Over 350 children less than 5 years of age drown in swimming pools.
Approximately 90 percent of child drownings involve swimming pools and 60-70 percent occurs in ground level residential pools. And it is not just your own pool that can be dangerous. About 50 percent of child drownings occur in the backyard pools of neighbors, family members or friends.
If you have an infant, toddler or pre-schooler at home, a swimming pool is extremely dangerous. And it’s not just in-ground pools that are hazardous. Yes, above-ground pools are much safer because access is easier to control, but they are still dangerous to unsupervised children.
If you’re thinking about building a pool in your backyard, consider the risks to the young children around you. My recommendation: wait until your child is at least six years old and has taken formal swimming lessons. Then, if you still want a pool, go for it. Just be sure to learn the important safety rules and get the necessary safety equipment from this list.
1. Life Jackets or Floaties
Life jackets or floaties provide added buoyancy and support to children while they are in the pool. They should be properly fitting and approved by a recognized safety organization such as the U.S. Coast Guard.
Children who are not strong swimmers or who are still learning to swim should wear a life jacket at all times while in the pool.
Why inflatable swimming aids aren’t enough
Flotation devices tend to give parents a false sense of security. They’re not substitutes for close supervision. Toddlers can also become overconfident if they wear floatation devices.
- Do not be lulled into thinking your child can swim unsupervised just because he is wearing a life jacket, water wings or a water ring.
- When your child is in the water be sure you are always within arms reach, even if he is wearing an inflatable swimming aid.
I once treated a three-year-old named Ryan who nearly drowned in a neighbor’s pool after boldly jumping in. When I asked him what happened, he sadly replied, “I forgot to wear my floaties”. Poor Ryan not only experienced a life-threatening event, but he thought it was his fault. Remember there is usually nothing inherently bad in such toys, as long as they are not used in lieu of close supervision.
2. Pool Safety Fence
A fence around your pool is a critical factor in drowning prevention. Pools without fences are much more dangerous because access to unsupervised children cannot be controlled. Several features on your fence must be present to make it an effective barrier.
- First and foremost, surround the pool completely with a wooden fence at least five feet high.
- Have your fence built so the vertical slats are no greater than three-and-a-half inches apart.
- Install a self-closing and self-latching gate. Be sure the latch is no less than 54″ from the ground and faces the pool. This will prevent an exploring toddler from reaching up and disengaging it.
- Never let the back of your house lead directly to the pool. I know of one toddler who crawled through a pet-door and nearly drowned in a backyard pool. Other points of exit from a house are doors and windows. If your home leads directly to the pool area without a fence in between, be certain the doors and windows remain secure at all times to ensure that your exploring toddler does not venture out when you aren’t looking. And as soon as possible, construct a fence in between your pool and house.
3. Non-Slip Pool Deck
A non-slip pool deck reduces the risk of slips and falls, which can be especially important for children who are still learning to swim.
The deck should have a textured surface or use non-slip mats to provide traction for bare feet. This can help prevent injuries, such as cuts and bruises, and provide a safer environment for children to play and swim in.
4. Emergency Equipment (e.g. Lifehook, Rope)
Emergency equipment, such as a lifehook or rope, should be easily accessible near the pool in case of an emergency.
- A lifehook is a long-handled device used to reach and pull a person to safety in case of an emergency.
- A rope can be used to throw to someone who is struggling in the water to help pull them to safety.
Having these tools readily available can provide peace of mind and can help save a life in an emergency situation.
5. Pool Alarm
A pool alarm is a device that alerts people when someone enters the pool. It can be especially useful for families with young children, as it provides an extra layer of safety.
Pool alarms can be placed on the pool deck or attached to the pool itself and will emit a loud sound when it detects movement in the water. Some pool alarms also have remote sensors that can be placed around the perimeter of the pool area to provide comprehensive coverage.
Pool alarms can help ensure that young children do not enter the pool unsupervised and can alert people if someone falls into the pool.
Applying sunscreen is an important part of pool safety for children. Sun exposure can be dangerous, and children are especially vulnerable to the harmful effects of the sun. Sunburn, skin damage, and skin cancer can all result from too much sun exposure.
When applying sunscreen, use a water-resistant product with at least SPF 30. Reapply sunscreen every 2 hours and after swimming or sweating. Taking these steps can help protect children from harmful sun exposure while they’re enjoying the pool.
To reduce the risk of sunscreen getting in the eyes, apply it carefully and avoid getting it too close to the eyes. It may be helpful to use a waterproof and sweat-proof sunscreen, and to apply it well before swimming to give it time to dry. If sunscreen does get in the eyes, rinse them thoroughly with water as soon as possible to reduce discomfort and prevent any potential irritation.
Pool Rules: Teaching safety
Whether you belong to a local swim club or have a pool in your own backyard, your older child will probably be splashing away once the summer heat arrives. Begin teaching the tenants of water safety as early
as possible; and be patient and persistent. You will no doubt recite the safety rules to her many times before they sink in. The important poolside safety rules to enforce are listed below.
- Always, always, always supervise your child. Never leave an infant, toddler or preschooler alone while in or near a pool. Some parents who know this rule forget it when the doorbell or telephone rings- this is precisely the moment that many child drownings occur. Remember that it takes less than 30 seconds for a child to drown.
- Keep a telephone and important phone numbers at the poolside.
- When your pool is not in use, put toys and floatation devices away, so they will not attract young children to the water. Keep the pool grounds free of toys, tricycles, wagons and debris when not being used; they can also entice young children into the area.
- Keep the pool grounds well lighted at night.
- Always close and latch the gate when coming and going onto the pool grounds.
- Keep the essential rescue items near the pool at all times (i.e. life preserver, buoy and shepherd’s hook).
- Take a CPR course and stay up-to-date on rescue techniques so you will always be prepared to save a young life.
- Never let your child swim alone, even when she is older.
- Don’t allow running on the pool grounds.
- Restrict diving to the diving board and only into the deep end of the pool. At least eight feet of water is necessary for safe diving.
- Never allow diving into above-ground pools.
- Don’t allow roughhousing (i.e. dunking, pushing or wrestling) on the pool grounds.
- Never allow swimming at night, in rainy weather or in thunderstorms.
Certain methods of maintaining and covering your pool can also be dangerous to children. Follow these tips for added child safety.
- Store all cleaning chemicals in a locked location. High concentrations of chlorine gas can be produced when these chemicals are mixed with water. If inhaled, chlorine gas can cause rapid damage to the lungs and airway of a child.
- Always keep children far away from the pool when adding chemicals.
- Place a sturdy cover over your pool in the off season.
- Don’t let water accumulate on the cover. A young toddler can drown in the small amounts of water that collect on a soft cover.
- Be sure to secure the cover on all sides and corners so a child cannot slip beneath it.
A baby pool can be a very safe alternative for your child but it’s important to recognize the dangers. Baby pools also pose a risk of drowning to infants, so close supervision is still a must. Truth is, they are best suited for older toddlers and only under close supervision.
- Never place a baby pool inside the fence of an adult pool. A young child could easily wander from a baby pool over to the big pool during a brief lapse of supervision.
- Always empty your baby pool as soon as you are through using it.
- Store a baby pool upside down to dry. Just be aware that an unsupervised infant could crawl beneath and get trapped.
Public Pools and Water Parks
Many millions of children enjoy recreational swimming pools every year. Strict safety rules and skilled lifeguards generally keep kids safe. But don’t take it for granted that your child is safe just because she is at the
public pool or water-park. Here are a few rules to help you ensure a safe summer outing at your child’s favorite public swimming spot.
- Be sure certified lifeguards are always on duty in adequate numbers that allow them to monitor every child swimmer.
- Have your child take periodic breaks from the sun and water to diminish the fatigue factor.
- Teach your child water slide rules. Always go down feet first and only one child at a time.
- Teach your child to follow the aforementioned pool rules in this section when at a public facility.
Swimming Lessons: When To Start
At some point in your child’s life, she should learn how to swim. The ability to swim is important and will be the jumping off point to a lifetime of fun in the water.
Your local swimming pool or health club probably offers lessons to children. Personal instructors are usually available.
But don’t be overzealous. You can start swimming lessons too early. Children should be at least four years of age before taking formal swimming lessons. Until then, they tend not to have the physical strength or coordination to swim properly and will remember very little of what is taught. You may even develop a false sense of security by thinking your child can swim when she really can’t. Fortunately, most public pools don’t allow children less than six years in the water without adult supervision.
Water classes for very young children
But all is not lost for those children too young to swim. There are some wonderful activities you and your toddler can enjoy in the water. For instance, you can enroll her in a water class. This will help get her acclimated to the water and help her develop an early interest in swimming.
As early as two years toddlers can learn to hold their breath under water for a few seconds and blow bubbles and coordinate arm and leg movements. Just don’t expect her to fully learn the techniques of swimming. And remember young children require one-on-one attention and constant contact when in the water.
- Never assume a toddler or pre-schooler knows how to swim, no matter what teaching method is used and no matter who the instructor is.
- Never enroll a kid under six years of age in a swimming class if there is not at least one instructor for each child.
- Be sure your child’s instructor is well-qualified to give swimming lessons, is certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and has passed a swimming instructor’s course from either the YMCA or American Red Cross.
- If your child has a fear of water, do not be discouraged. Be patient and give her time to accept the idea of swimming.
Forced submersion technique
This method allows a youngster to briefly sink in the water when learning to swim. Some people believe this
sink-or-swim approach teaches young children how to stay afloat. But it can be dangerous. Children can swallow or choke on water when submerged. Never put your child in a swimming class that uses the technique of forced submersion.
The wonderful truth is that every year millions of children safely splash the summer months away in private and public swimming pools across the country. Follow these basic rules and you will help ensure that the children in your life always enjoy safe swimming.
Safety equipment provides an added layer of protection but is not a substitute for proper supervision. No equipment can replace the watchful eye of an adult who is attentive and able to respond quickly in an emergency. Kids can still slip, fall, or get into trouble even with safety equipment in place. Also, safety equipment can only do so much – for example, a life jacket can provide floatation support but can’t guarantee that a child won’t still struggle in the water.